Saturday, November 30, 2013


The Salvation Army in Russian - created by the FSAOF for our more
than dozen mission project visits to Latvia and Ukraine

Christmas in Seda, Ukraine 2013

Click below to experience the Carol Sing

The Salvation Army - Carol Sing Royal Albert Hall London 2013

Friday, November 29, 2013

Pope Francis

Pope Francis: No More Business as Usual
By Daniel Burke, Belief Blog Co-editor
(CNN) - Pope Francis on Tuesday called for big changes in the Roman Catholic Church – including at the very top  – saying the church needs to rethink rules and customs that are no longer widely understood or effective for evangelizing.

"I prefer a Church which is bruised, hurting and dirty because it has been out on the streets, rather than a Church which is unhealthy from being confined and from clinging to its own security," the Pope said in a major new statement.

"I do not want a Church concerned with being at the center and then ends by being caught up in a web of obsessions and procedures," Francis added.

The Pope's address, called an "apostolic exhortation," is part mission statement, part pep talk for the world's 1.5 billion Catholics. Francis' bold language and sweeping call for change are likely to surprise even those who've grown accustomed to his unconventional papacy.

"Not everyone will like this document," said the Rev. James Martin, a Jesuit priest and author in New York. "For it poses a fierce challenge to the status quo."

And it's not just a verbal challenge, the Pope said on Tuesday.

"I want to emphasize that what I am trying to express here has a programmatic significance and important consequences."

Since his election in March, Pope Francis, the first pontiff to hail from Latin America, has made headlines by decrying the iniquities of modern capitalism, embracing the poor and people with disabilities and reaching out to gays and lesbians.

At the same time, the 77-year-old pontiff, has sought to to awaken a spirit of joy and compassion in the church, scolding Catholic "sourpusses" who hunt down rule-breakers and calling out a "tomb psychology" that "slowly transforms Christians into mummies in a museum."
"An evangelizer must never look like someone who has just come back from a funeral!" the Pope said.

Officially known in Latin as "Evangelii Gaudium" (The Joy of the Gospel), the 85-page statement released on Tuesday is the first official document written entirely by Pope Francis. (An earlier document was co-written by Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI.)

Although Francis sprinkles the statement with citations of previous popes and Catholic luminaries like St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine, the new pontiff makes a bold call for the church to rethink even long-held traditions.
"In her ongoing discernment, the Church can also come to see that certain customs not directly connected to the heart of the Gospel, even some which have deep historical roots, are no longer properly understood and appreciated," the Pope said.

"Some of these customs may be beautiful, but they no longer serve as means of communicating the Gospel. We should not be afraid to re-examine them. At the same time, the Church has rules or precepts which may have been quite effective in their time, but no longer have the same usefulness for directing and shaping people’s lives."

Such statements mark a sharp break from Benedict XVI, a more tradition-bound pope who focused on cleaning up cobwebs of unorthodoxy in the church.

By contrast, in "Evangelii" Francis repeats his calls for Catholics to stop "obsessing" about culture war issues and to focus more on spreading the Gospel, especially to the poor and marginalized.
The outside world, particularly its economic inequalities, didn't escape Francis' notice either.

In a section of "Evangelii" entitled "some challenges to today's world," he sharply criticized what he called an "idolatry of money" and "the inequality that spawns violence."

The Pope also blasted "trickle-down economics," saying the theory "expresses a crude and naïve trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power."

“Meanwhile,” Francis said, “the excluded are still waiting.”

But the bulk of Francis' statement addresses the church, which, he said, should not be afraid to "get its shoes soiled by the mud of the street."

The Pope also hinted that he wants to see an end to the so-called "wafer wars," in which Catholic politicians who support abortion rights are denied Holy Communion. His comments could also be taken as another sign that he plans to reform church rules that prevent divorced Catholics from receiving the Eucharist.

"Everyone can share in some way in the life of the Church; everyone can be part of the community, nor should the doors of the sacraments be closed for simply any reason," Francis said.

"The Eucharist, although it is the fullness of sacramental life, is not a prize for the perfect but a powerful medicine and nourishment for the weak."

Even so, Francis reiterated the church's stand against abortion, defending it against critics who call such arguments "ideological, obscurantist and conservative."

"Precisely because this involves the internal consistency of our message about the value of the human person, the Church cannot be expected to change her position on this question," Francis said.

The Pope also reiterated previous rejections on ordaining women, saying the topic is "not open for discussion."

But that doesn't mean the church values men more than women, he said.
"We need to create still broader opportunities for a more incisive female presence in the Church," the Pope said.

Francis also said he expects other parts of the church to change, and called on Catholics to be unafraid of trying new things.
"More than by fear of going astray, my hope is that we will be moved by the fear of remaining shut up within structures which give us a false sense of security, within rules which make us harsh judges, within habits which make us feel safe, while at our door people are starving."

Francis didn't mention specific reforms, but he suggested that it could include changes at the very top of the church.

"Since I am called to put into practice what I ask of others, I too must think about a conversion of the papacy," he said.

The church's centralization, where all roads lead to Rome, and the "we've always done it this way" type of thinking have hindered Catholics' ability to minister to local people in far-flung places, Francis suggested.

"I invite everyone to be bold and creative in this task of rethinking the goals, structures, style and methods of evangelization in their respective communities," the Pope said.

Martin, the Jesuit priest and author, said he could not recall ever "reading a papal document that was so thought-provoking, surprising and invigorating."

"The document’s main message is that Catholics should be unafraid of new ways of proclaiming the Gospel and new ways of thinking about the church."

Thursday, November 28, 2013

1963 "I Wanna Hold Your Hand"

In October 1963, Salvation Army General–Elect Frederick Coutts said it would be his priority to reach young people. "If we need to, we will take up electric guitars and go into coffeehouses!" he said. He didn't know that within weeks, a great cultural shift would take place when four young, long–haired musicians from Liverpool released their first hit single, "I Wanna Hold Your Hand." In the United States, the "British Invasion" began. Quite by accident, the Salvation Army's Joystrings became part of it. The BBC had asked for a sampling of new Salvation Army sound, so several young officers–in–training—including two men who owned guitars but didn't know how to play them—led by Captain Joy Webb, were thrown into the fray. After several television appearances, The Joystrings' first EMI record release, "It's An Open Secret," hit the pop charts at #32 in February 1964.
Six thousand–plus people held up traffic in central London watching them perform on the steps of St. Paul's Cathedral. Gigs followed in concert halls, coffeehouses, and the Blue Angel and Playboy nightclubs. All the royalties from their recordings and concerts went to help the downtrodden. In the U.S., early video and press releases stressed the novelty of uniformed young people, with girls in poke bonnets, belting out songs and gyrating to never–before–heard Christian rock. They became fodder for late–night comedy shows and lighthearted material to end Sunday night newscasts, with the tag line "Look what England's sending us now!" Christian pop star Sir Cliff Richard, in his foreword to Sylvia Dalziel's recently released book, The Joystrings: The Story of The Salvation Army Pop Group, credits the group for paving the way for other Christian musicians at a time "when guitars in church, let alone music with a beat … were a definite no–no." Dalziel, then Sylvia Gair, married Peter Dalziel. They were two of the five "final" Joystrings from 1965 onward.
Critics abounded. A famous American evangelist condemned The Salvation Army for resorting to such tactics. Conservative Christians, including Salvationists, who forgot about an earlier time when brass bands were considered scandalous, complained that God couldn't possibly like The Joystrings; Wycliffe, the drummer, looked like a beatnik! Retired Major Joy Webb, who was admitted to the Army's Order of the Founder for her musical leadership, still stands by The Joystrings, which lasted until 1968. "Hundreds and hundreds of people made decisions for Christ … and you can't knock that, can you? That's what it was all about. Thank God." 

Daryl Lach

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Reconciliation Experience

The word "reconciliation" brings to my mind an experience I had several years ago as my husband and I were entering into full time ministry with the SA, assigned to start a corps in a developing area.  We were already employees with the Army, living in and paying rent on a property normally used as housing for employees who were new to the area.  It was obvious there had never been upgrades made to the house.  After years of tenant use and abuse, it was in a very dilapidated state.  However, being new to the work, and only renters, we didn’t feel entitled to ask for any improvements to be made.

A few years later, as we were leaving that division to launch into our new assignment as Envoys, we received a scathing letter from the newly appointed DC regarding the condition of the quarters we had just vacated, saying, among other things, that it was “uninhabitable” (ouch)!  The newly appointed corps officer, who we knew by reputation, respected, and looked forward to meeting, also joined in this accusation.  We had taken pains to ensure that the house was found in better condition when we left than when we first arrived.  Friends from the corps came to help us move and clean up, and attested to the fact that it was left spotless.  Unfortunately, there was little anyone could do about the condition due to age and normal wear and tear.  We found out later that plans were being made during this time to bring new Lieutenants into the house, so in the end the house was renovated to standards that officers would find more acceptable.

Shortly after this painful parting from that division, I was selected as a delegate to an interdenominational Prayer Conference.  The speakers were all topnotch Christian leaders from all over the world.  The speaker who impressed me most was Nancy Lee DeMoss, who spoke of our need to forgive in order to obtain forgiveness, and to be used by God in our ministries.  A list was passed out comparing “Proud People” with “Broken People”, which we were given time to read and pray over.

We were then asked to move into circles of a dozen, in a room packed with hundreds of people.   There were a few other SA delegates in that crowd, and everyone quickly moved randomly around, seeking a group to join.  As the group of strangers around me began to gather together, I was glad to see a long time officer friend join our group. Just as the prayer session was about to begin, those who hadn’t yet found a group, did so.  I saw another officer join our group, and lo and behold, it was the same corps officer who had recently joined in those hurtful accusations against my husband and I, and who I had been harboring resentment against…what was God doing?  By the look of shock on the officer’s face, I saw he hadn’t been aware that I was in the group until that moment, but it was too late to do anything about it…the prayer session was starting.

Our groups were told to first pray individually, asking the Lord to examine our hearts and show us where we needed to be forgiven, and to whom we needed to show forgiveness.  All I could think of was No. 25 on the list that Nancy DeMoss gave us, which stated: 

“Proud People…wait for the other to come and ask forgiveness when there is a misunderstanding or conflict in relationships. 
Broken People…take the initiative to be reconciled when there is a misunderstanding or a conflict in relationships; they race to the cross; they see if they can get there first, no matter how wrong the other may have been.”

When we were then asked to pray together in our groups, I felt the presence of the Lord so strongly, urging me to pray.  Although I tried to fight it, I finally opened my mouth and prayed, first, thanking the Lord for bringing me to the conference to make me aware of my own brokenness and unforgiving spirit, which I had been unaware of.  I then thanked Him for bringing into that group the person against whom I had been harboring resentment.  Before I could go on, all of a sudden that officer grabbed my hand and began praying, asking the Lord for forgiveness.  It was as if a dam had burst, so much came tumbling out, and I knew that officer hadn’t realized the situation he had stepped into when he first came onto that scene that caused us such hurt.  When the prayer session broke up, we had a brief opportunity to converse and again make amends.  I felt as if a heavy weight had been lifted off my shoulders.  Everyone around us was pretty stunned, not really knowing what had just taken place…and nobody dared ask.  However, we knew it was a miracle that only God could have orchestrated, bringing people together in order to provide healing so His work could be accomplished…especially at the beginning of the new ventures the Lord had brought all of us to.  My husband was amazed when I told him what had happened, and it was a healing for him as well.  I cannot speak for the other officer, as we never saw each other again, but God taught me a lesson in reconciliation – to forgive even when I do not feel like it, or when the other person does not ask it of me.

Marlene Jones
Former Officer
USA West

Monday, November 25, 2013


During a chilly Friday,
the open social agency, driven by all the churches and congregations, including the Salvation Army, together with the city council of the northern town of Boden, Sweden, namely

tried to get the full attention from all the citizens of Boden.
The purpose of the happenings during this day, that included the Soup kitchen with participations of the local politicians (in the TV news the Mayor of Boden Thorbjorn Lidberg, is interviewed) and in the evening a great Concert and Sing-a-Long in the town Church, was to tell about the importance of Seeing All Men – even those of us that we maybe don´t want to see – the homeless ones, the mentally dysfunctional ones and the alcoholics and addicted ones.

The activities during the day were well covered by newspapers and the regional TV news, Nordnytt.

It may be hard to grasp the fact that there´s homeless people in a Swedish town – one of the richest countries in the world, and in a town that is located close to the Arctic Circle. But unfortunately it is a fact. And the Churches, involving the local corps of the Salvation Army, decided almost 40 years ago to act on the drinking- and drug problems in the area.
The High Point during the year is of course the Christmas celebrations.
RIA, which by the way is a shortening for
Rådgivning (Counselling)
I (In)
Alkoholfrågor (matters of Alcoholism)
has for more than 30 years been open and operating during the whole week of the Christmas and New Year celebrations. All guests are welcomed in the warm Christian spirit of Christmas, the traditional carols and lots of traditional Christmas food and of course, a Christmas gift for each and very one is not to be forgotten! 

As a former officer, it´s a great joy and blessing for me to be involved in an activity that is so closely linked to my previous mission in the Army.

Link to the TV news programme:

Pictures from the newspapers:

Kjell receiving a gift to be added to the Cristmas happenings last year (with Ayla, the adorable dwarf pincher in his hands)

Kjell-Erik Edlund

Former Officer




10 Reasons Why Reading The Bible Makes Us More Progressive

10 Reasons Why Reading The Bible Makes Us More Progressive

November, 2013 

In a piece I published yesterday, (Study Shows: Reading Your Bible Often Makes You More Liberal), we took a look at a study I read the other day which showed the more often people read their Bible, the more liberal/progressive they become. (In yesterday’s article I used the term “liberal” but in today’s I’m using the term “progressive” since that’s what I identify as). Looking back on my own journey out of fundamentalist thinking and into a Christianity that is life-giving instead of life-sucking for me, this trajectory of moving away from the hard right the more I read my Bible, has been a daily reality.

From getting to know so many of your stories, it sounds like many of you have experienced similar paradigm shifts of predictable right-to-left movement the more you embraced the Bible as well.

(Quick point of order: I’m not saying that reading your Bible will make you all the way left, because certainly I am not on many issues. The argument is simply that for those of us on the hard right, when we read our Bibles more often, it tends to move us in a leftward motion on certain issues.)

The question becomes, why?

For those family and friends still stuck in a paradigm we have already left, when we move ever so slightly out of the far-right corner of the field we are assumed to be not taking the Bible seriously, accused of being “relativists”, and other assumptions are made as to why we are changing. The ironic truth however, is that so many of us have arrived at being Christian progressives not because we decided to set half the Bible aside, and not because we decided to stop taking the Bible seriously, but as a gradual process that resulted from taking the Bible more seriously and deciding to try to follow those often neglected parts.

We became Christian progressives because we read our Bibles, not because we put them away. It’s okay if you’re not here yet or if you ever will be, but it’s important to understand the truth about how and why we arrived here.
While this isn’t all comprehensive, based upon my own experience, here’s my list:

10 reasons why I think reading your Bible more frequently will make you a more Progressive Christian:

1. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that I don’t have it all together.
Growing up I was frequently reminded that the Bible, through the Holy Spirit will convict us of sin… and you know what, it’s true. The more I get to know my Bible the more I realize how deeply flawed I am… which makes me see others more compassionately, because I am reminded that they are just like me. The more I see others as being just like me, the more progressive I become because I move in a trajectory of love, tolerance, and am way less likely to pronounce judgment on someone else than I was before. (Obviously, I still struggle with Mark Driscoll, but I am working on it.)

2. The more I read my Bible, the more I develop humility.
The Apostle Paul says that we should view our sins as being worse than anyone else, and that we should view ourselves as walking examples of how patient God is with people who can’t get it together. When I am honest about my life, that is absolutely true. I am a walking example of someone who knows how to test God’s patience, and my sins are just as bad as whatever yours might be. This realization made it too difficult to stay in my old paradigm; yes, I want to spend my life inviting people to experience Jesus (in that regard, I am completely still an “evangelical”), but I want to do it in a new way– a more humble way. I’m not always there (see #1) but I desperately want to get there.

3. The more I read my Bible, the more I discover that justice for the poor and oppressed is at the heart of it.
I wasn’t all that concerned about the poor and oppressed until I opened my Bible… and discovered that commands to care for them are all over the place from the Old Testament, all the way through the New Testament. I tried to escape it and explain it away, but I can’t– God wants us to care for, serve, and love these people.

4. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize “redistribution of wealth” wasn’t Obama’s idea– it was God’s.
That redistribution of wealth stuff? Yeah, it’s in the Bible and was actually God’s idea. In the Old Testament we have years of Jubilee, restrictions on gleaning your garden more than once, a command from God that there should be “no poor among you”, and prophets who came to denounce the nation when the rich grew richer and the poor grew poorer. Let’s not give Obama the credit– God thought of it first.

5. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that the early Christians actually practiced this re-distribution of wealth.
Those early Christians? Well, for a time they actually practiced some radical economic principles. And, guess what? The book of Acts tells us that there weren’t any poor people among them. They rejected individual ownership, gave their wealth to leadership who in turn, redistributed it according to need. There weren’t any mandatory drug testing programs, just assistance according to need. While this still seems too radical for me, it moves me in a right to left trajectory as I read it.

6. The more I read my Bible the more I realize Jesus taught we need to pay our taxes.
After reading 4 and 5, some are probably saying “yeah, but that was never supposed to be the government’s job”. Well, in the life of Jesus we see him tell someone that he should “sell everything and give it to the poor”, and to yet another we see that Jesus commands us to pay our taxes. So, it looks like we’re not getting off the hook either way– we need to pay our taxes AND give private charity. It’s not an either or proposition. I’m not a fan of that either, but it’s in the Bible.

7. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that God wants us to be people who are quick to show mercy.
The prophet Micah says that “loving mercy” is actually something God “requires” of us. Jesus tells us that justice and mercy are the “more important” parts of God’s law. This means that when it comes to issues of justice, economics, poverty, the death penalty, etc., I have become more quick to take the default position that sides with radical mercy.

8. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that God cares how we treat immigrants.
Whenever God lists out a group of people that he wants his people to take care of, immigrants make the cut. The more I read about God’s heart for the immigrant, the more I realize that I might be held accountable for how I treat them, and how I talk about them.

9. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that God will hold us accountable for how we care for the environment.
The more I read my Bible, the more I see that God’s original mandate for humanity, was to care for creation– we were designed for and given the task of being environmental conservationists. In the end? Well, we see that God is going to judge quite harshly those who refused:

“The nations raged, but your wrath came, and the time for the dead to be judged, and for rewarding your servants, the prophets and saints, and those who fear your name, both small and great, and for destroying the destroyers of the earth” (Rev 11:18)
Not sure how to escape it– God wants me to care for and protect the environment, so I will.

10. The more I read my Bible, the more I realize that God isn’t judging us by whether or not we get all of our doctrine right– he’s judging us by whether or not we get the “love one another” part right.
This aspect wasn’t a major player in my faith before, but the more I read the Bible the more I realize that God is less concerned with us all sharing the same doctrine but is heavily concerned with whether or not we love each other. In fact, Jesus said this would be the calling card of his followers, and how others would realize we’re actually following Jesus– that we love one another. The more I read my Bible, the more I want to defer my position or preference and instead side with what is in the best interest of others– because that’s the loving thing to do.

These are the 10 reasons why reading my Bible more made  me a more Progressive Christian. How has reading your Bible more often changed your worldview? Has your experience been similar or different?

Friday, November 22, 2013



The photo labelled "OB ward" should read’ ‘Out Patient Ward’.

All photos of the HH in the ‘Post 2012’ section were taken by Jan Corley.

The apology from the TC, Zimbabwe, was addressed ONLY to Shirley Watkinson.

Tuesday, November 19, 2013



I am a 5th generation Salvationist from Canada.

In April of 2012 I had the privilege of spending the month at Howard Hospital. What I observed there was a man who treated the patients, colleagues, staff an the people there with the upmost love and respect. And he was treated in the same fashion by all with whom he had contact. This man is Captain (Dr.) Paul Thistle. He has upheld the mission of the Salvation Army in a foreign land for 16 years and as of August last year, had it all taken away from him in a blink of an eye. The people, Dr. Paul and his family are devastated.

I had the privilege of returning to Howard Hospital on October 13th and saw the truth for myself, how the hospital’s, the Salvation Army’s mission, has been compromised. Only three children on the children's ward; less than ten women on the women's ward, with the men's ward full, but that was only due a major road accident involving a busload of passengers. And just inside the gate where throngs of people congregated on any given day among the traders and kiosks selling their wares, only a handful of people were seen. (I have pictures to prove what I witnessed, but I forgot the cord that is used to download the photos to the computer. I will be home at the end of October and will post the pics then.)
I got first-hand verbal account from the people that they want Dr. Paul, Pedrinah and the family back: they are not happy. If anyone contradicts this statement or report, they are not being truthful. The FSAOF has assured me that they will post all rebuttals completely and without edit.

I am very saddened and angry what has happened at HH and the Army in Zim, IHQ and Toronto need to admit they made a tragic error and act quickly to effect a return of the one man who truly can make a difference. People in Zimbabwe and even some in Canada refer to Paul as their hero. The Army needs to listen to the people who are being affected, show love and demonstrate a caring attitude. Actions speak louder than words.

We must never give up. People who really are supportive of Paul and the Howard situation, need to keep sending emails to the appropriate persons in command.

I leave you with a quote from Dr. Paul Thistle himself-
 "I am still a Salvationist and I believe in reform within the church."

TRANSPARENCY IN THE SA PART FIVE Who ‘guards the Guardians'?

Who ‘guards the Guardians”? 

One year ago, in November, 2012, the Leveson Inquiry on press ethics was released.  Lord Justice Leveson had been leading the inquiry into the culture, practice and ethics of the press.  No one living in the UK or the continent could have missed the outcry centred on the ethical gathering and release of reports to and through the media with a focus on the press.

You might wonder what in the world this has to do with the FSAOF and the Howard Hospital scandal. The Leveson Inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the press speaks directly to the relationship between the press and the public and looks at potentially illegal behaviour. And in its Module 4 makes specific recommendations for a more effective policy and regulation that supports the integrity and freedom of the press while encouraging the highest ethical standards.
Lord Leveson began his statement saying:  ‘The press provides an essential check on all aspects of public life.  That is why any failure within the media affects all of us.  At the heart of this Inquiry, therefore: who ‘guards the guardians' ? 

Is it too bold a claim to suggest that this has become the assumed role of the FSAOF; to guard the guardians of our faith? Our position has been and remains making specific recommendations for a more effective management and control policy and regulation that supports the integrity and freedom of all SA media reports  while encouraging the highest ethical standards. People need to be aware that the press, you won’t be surprised, uses slapdash headlines and shameful photographs to attract readers in an effort to keep subscriber figures high and the advertisers happy. 
In the case of the FSAOF’s reporting these last several months we have not altered or doctored any of the photographs or copy used by the many newspapers and other media services we’ve used in sharing the Howard story. And whether the photographs and headlines were Canadian or Zimbabwean most are oblivious to Lord Leveson’s lofty ideals. They’ve been free and fanciful in writing their reports, and skirting ethical guidelines  in presenting their headline stories and use of non-related photographs for effect. But our guardians have as well, the very few times they were heard from.   

Add caption
Our focus continues to be a free exchange of verifiable information and we believe that in sharing the narrative from our three Canadian friends it’s the best possible way of observing ethical and professional reporting standards.  We maintain that theirs is an accurate and balanced report, and as you read it I believe you will be in agreement.

Lorraine Irvine is a very fit 84-year old, highly respected doctor from Victoria B.C., who has been volunteering for months at a time at Howard Hospital for the past 17 years. 

Well known to fellow hospital staff and villagers alike, she was accepted as one of the ‘Howard doctors’ by the local people, though she received no pay, even paying for her own food and most of her transport. 

As a member of a group of Scottish dancers, and links with the Rotary Club, she has raised tens of thousands of dollars for the hospital and for school fees for orphans at the Nyachuru School and a local orphanage. She loved to walk among the rolling hills and local villages, getting to know the families personally. 

She was quite happy with the reception by the Zimbabwe TC and CS. Jan Corley, a Salvationist from Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, along with another Salvationist from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Shirley Watkinson, an emergency room nurse joined with Lorraine .

The three arrived at the hospital on Oct. 18, 2013 Corley said she was “shocked to see the once filled-to-the-brim hospital with so few patients.
We wanted to go back and see the people, our friends and get a firsthand account of what Howard was like now as opposed to what it was like before”.  Corley said, “I was struck by the emptiness. There was hardly anybody inside.”

Corley and Watkinson began taking photographs and were about to leave when they were accosted by two male hospital employees, members of the Zimbabwean branch of the Salvation Army; SA officers..

“They were pretty nasty,” she said.

The women walked tried to away but were followed hastily by the hospital’s administrator who ordered a passing police officer to arrest them, Corley said.

All three women were forced into a Salvation Army vehicle. “We were held against our will,” she said. “We were locked in the back.”

End narrative part one